SEDIMENTARY FACIES AND ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SEDIMENTARY FILL OF SOUTHERN BIDA BASIN, NIGERIA.
Six lithofacies were identified in the Lokoja Formation, Southern Bida Basin: fanglomerate/ conglomerate lithofacies (Gmc), fine to coarse-grained ferruginized weakly cross-bedded, pebbly sandstone lithofacies (Scx), fine to coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies (Sfc), silty claystone lithofacies (Csm), siltstone lithofacies (Slt) and lateritic ironstone lithofacies (Ilt). These were grouped into three lithofacies associations viz: alluvial fan, braided river channel, floodplain lithofacies association. Nine lithofacies were identified in the Ahoko Formation. These are: black-dark grey carbonaceous shale lithofacies (Shc), bioturbated ripple-laminated siltstone lithofacies (Sbr), poorly cross-laminated claystone lithofacies (Cxl), concretionary/nodular ironstone lithofacies (Icn), medium to coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies (Smc) fine grained, well-sorted, friable bioturbated herringbone cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies (Sxf), massive brownish claystone lithofacies (Clm), massive claystone with lateritic ironstone lithofacies (Cli) and lateritic ironstones lithofacies (Ilt). These have been grouped into three lithofacies associations viz: shallow marine lithofacies association, tidal-intertidal flat lithofacies association and floodplain lithofacies association. Similarly, three lithofacies were identified in the Agbaja Formation and have been grouped into two lithofacies association. These are: fine to medium-grained sandstone ironstone interbedded lithofacies (Sti), oolitic–pisolitic ironstone lithofacies (Iop) and concretionary ironstone lithofacies (Icr). The lithofacies associations are: tidal-intertidal flat lithofacies association and shallow marine lithofacies association. Result of lithofacies analysis helped in interpreting the depositional environments. The Lokoja Formation is a product of a fluvial dominated alluvial system from debris/gravity flow in alluvial fan. This developed further into braided river channels and later meandering river during the closing stages. Sediments of the Ahoko Formation were deposited in tidal/intertidal flats and shallow marine environments while sediments of the Agbaja Formation were produced by a shallow marine system with a high tidal influence.
Lithofacies, Association, Depositional Environment, Model, Outcrops, Bida Basin
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