SEDIMENTARY FACIES AND ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SEDIMENTARY FILL OF SOUTHERN BIDA BASIN, NIGERIA.

OZULU, GEORGE UCHEBIKE,, OKORO, ANTHONY UWAOMA, ONUIGBO, EVANGELINE NJIDEKA

Abstract


Six lithofacies were identified in the Lokoja Formation, Southern Bida Basin: fanglomerate/ conglomerate lithofacies (Gmc), fine to coarse-grained ferruginized weakly cross-bedded, pebbly sandstone lithofacies (Scx), fine to coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies (Sfc), silty claystone lithofacies (Csm), siltstone lithofacies (Slt) and lateritic ironstone lithofacies (Ilt). These were grouped into three lithofacies associations viz: alluvial fan, braided river channel, floodplain lithofacies association. Nine lithofacies were identified in the Ahoko Formation. These are: black-dark grey carbonaceous shale lithofacies (Shc), bioturbated ripple-laminated siltstone lithofacies (Sbr), poorly cross-laminated claystone lithofacies (Cxl), concretionary/nodular ironstone lithofacies (Icn), medium to coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies (Smc) fine grained, well-sorted, friable bioturbated herringbone cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies (Sxf), massive brownish claystone lithofacies (Clm), massive claystone with lateritic ironstone lithofacies (Cli) and lateritic ironstones lithofacies (Ilt). These have been grouped into three lithofacies associations viz: shallow marine lithofacies association, tidal-intertidal flat lithofacies association and floodplain lithofacies association. Similarly, three lithofacies were identified in the Agbaja Formation and have been grouped into two lithofacies association. These are: fine to medium-grained sandstone ironstone interbedded lithofacies (Sti), oolitic–pisolitic ironstone lithofacies (Iop) and concretionary ironstone lithofacies (Icr). The lithofacies associations are: tidal-intertidal flat lithofacies association and shallow marine lithofacies association. Result of lithofacies analysis helped in interpreting the depositional environments. The Lokoja Formation is a product of a fluvial dominated alluvial system from debris/gravity flow in alluvial fan. This developed further into braided river channels and later meandering river during the closing stages. Sediments of the Ahoko Formation were deposited in tidal/intertidal flats and shallow marine environments while sediments of the Agbaja Formation were produced by a shallow marine system with a high tidal influence.

Keywords


Lithofacies, Association, Depositional Environment, Model, Outcrops, Bida Basin

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