A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT FOR GROUNDWATER IN A PART OF NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA USING LANDSAT ETM+
In a basement environment where groundwater is restricted to secondary permeability, structural analysis using remote sensing is a reliable and cheap method for the start-up process for groundwater exploration. In this study, remote sensing and GIS technology were employed as a major tool for groundwater prospecting in a part of North Central Nigeria; an area prone to water scarcity for more than half of every year.
The geological map of the study area, Landsat7 ETM+, and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) imageries covering the area were employed in this study. Edge enhancements and directional filtering were carried out to enhance the visibility of lineaments on the Landsat imagery. To eliminate bias and subjectivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed for further lineament detection.
Results indicate that lineaments extracted from the Landsat imagery were in agreement with those obtained from the DEM. Those obtained from the NDVI analysis were also in agreement, except for a number of entirely new lineaments detected. This showed the importance of healthy vegetation aligned in a linear or curvilinear way as a major guide to detecting subsurface water-bearing zones that are not visible on the surface. Results also show that the dominant lineaments trend along the NE-SW direction. The northwest and central parts of the study area have relatively high lineament density, while the southern part has very low lineament density. These areas with high lineament density values are more feasible zones for groundwater prospecting.
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